- Age span of at least three years in a class.
- Emphasis on Cognitive and Social Development.
- Teacher has guiding role.
- Children reinforce their own learning by repetition of work and internal feelings of success.
- Environment and method encourage Self-discipline.
- Mostly individual instruction.
- Develops wise use of free choice. Child chooses own work.
- Learns about care of one’s self and environment.
- Highly organized sets of graduated materials – Mostly three dimensional and “concrete”.
- Child sets own learning pace.
- Child reinforces own learning by repetition of work and internal feelings of success
- Emphasis on Rote Learning and Social Behavior.
- Teacher controls classroom.
- Learning is reinforced externally (rewards, stickers, etc.). Teacher motivated.
- Teacher acts as primary enforcer of discipline.
- Mostly group instruction.
- Very few choices. Teacher assigns work for child.
- Less emphasis on self-learning instruction.
- Mostly abstract – books, papers, etc.
- Instruction pace set by group.
- Learning is reinforced externally by repetition, rewards and punishment